Building preparedness in response to active shooter incidents: Results of focus group interviews (bibtex)
by Zhu, Runhe, Lucas, Gale M., Becerik-Gerber, Burcin and Southers, Erroll G.
Abstract:
Active shooter incidents present an increasing threat to the American society. Many of these incidents occur in building environments, therefore, it is important to consider design and security elements in buildings to decrease the risk of active shooter incidents. This study aims to assess current security countermeasures and identify varying considerations associated with implementing these countermeasures. Fifteen participants, with expertise and experience in a diverse collection of operational and organizational backgrounds, including se­ curity, engineering, law enforcement, emergency management and policy making, participated in three focus group interviews. The participants identified a list of countermeasures that have been used for active shooter incidents. Important determinants for the effectiveness of countermeasures include their influence on occupants’ behavior during active shooter incidents, and occupants’ and administrators’ awareness of how to use them effectively. The nature of incidents (e.g., internal vs. external threats), building type (e.g., office buildings vs. school buildings), and occupants (e.g., students of different ages) were also recognized to affect the selection of appropriate countermeasures. The nexus between emergency preparedness and normal operations, and the importance of tradeoffs such as the ones between cost, aesthetics, maintenance needs and the influence on oc­ cupants’ daily activities were also discussed. To ensure the effectiveness of countermeasures and improve safety, the participants highlighted the importance of both training and practice, for occupants and administrators (e.g., first responder teams). The interview results suggested that further study of the relationship between security countermeasures and occupants’ and administrators’ responses, as well as efficient training approaches are needed.
Reference:
Building preparedness in response to active shooter incidents: Results of focus group interviews (Zhu, Runhe, Lucas, Gale M., Becerik-Gerber, Burcin and Southers, Erroll G.), In International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, volume 48, 2020.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{zhu_building_2020,
	title = {Building preparedness in response to active shooter incidents: {Results} of focus group interviews},
	volume = {48},
	issn = {22124209},
	url = {https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S221242091931427X},
	doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101617},
	abstract = {Active shooter incidents present an increasing threat to the American society. Many of these incidents occur in building environments, therefore, it is important to consider design and security elements in buildings to decrease the risk of active shooter incidents. This study aims to assess current security countermeasures and identify varying considerations associated with implementing these countermeasures. Fifteen participants, with expertise and experience in a diverse collection of operational and organizational backgrounds, including se­ curity, engineering, law enforcement, emergency management and policy making, participated in three focus group interviews. The participants identified a list of countermeasures that have been used for active shooter incidents. Important determinants for the effectiveness of countermeasures include their influence on occupants’ behavior during active shooter incidents, and occupants’ and administrators’ awareness of how to use them effectively. The nature of incidents (e.g., internal vs. external threats), building type (e.g., office buildings vs. school buildings), and occupants (e.g., students of different ages) were also recognized to affect the selection of appropriate countermeasures. The nexus between emergency preparedness and normal operations, and the importance of tradeoffs such as the ones between cost, aesthetics, maintenance needs and the influence on oc­ cupants’ daily activities were also discussed. To ensure the effectiveness of countermeasures and improve safety, the participants highlighted the importance of both training and practice, for occupants and administrators (e.g., first responder teams). The interview results suggested that further study of the relationship between security countermeasures and occupants’ and administrators’ responses, as well as efficient training approaches are needed.},
	journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction},
	author = {Zhu, Runhe and Lucas, Gale M. and Becerik-Gerber, Burcin and Southers, Erroll G.},
	month = sep,
	year = {2020},
	keywords = {ARO-Coop, Virtual Humans},
	pages = {101617}
}
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