An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-based learning: Evidence for the performance benefits of guided training methods. (bibtex)
by Clark, Richard E., Yates, Kenneth A., Early, Sean and Moulton, Kathrine
Abstract:
This chapter will present a direct, evidence-based argument that while media provide economic benefits for training organizations, they have not and will not influence learning, motivation or work performance. We begin with a discussion of popular instructional design models based on discovery and problem-based learning and argue that a half-century of research has indicated that they are also ineffective for all but a small minority of learners. We will briefly describe the half-century of research that supports our conclusions and describe the consequences for business and education. Contrary to popular belief regarding the importance of media in training, we will suggest that a handful of specific training methods are the only environmental factors that have been found to have a major influence on learning and performance. We will argue that the methods we describe are successful in many different delivery media because they support the mental process by which people learn complex knowledge. We will then describe an example of the current training models that promote guided learning. The chapter will conclude with a description of a powerful tool for selecting the most cost-beneficial media to deliver guided learning methods for nearly any training or performance goal.
Reference:
An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-based learning: Evidence for the performance benefits of guided training methods. (Clark, Richard E., Yates, Kenneth A., Early, Sean and Moulton, Kathrine), Chapter in Handbook of Training and Improving Workplace Performance, International Society for Performance Improvement, volume 1, 2009.
Bibtex Entry:
@incollection{clark_analysis_2009,
	address = {Washington, DC},
	title = {An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-based learning: {Evidence} for the performance benefits of guided training methods.},
	volume = {1},
	url = {http://www.ict.usc.edu/pubs/An%20analysis%20of%20the%20failure%20of%20electronic%20media%20and%20discovery-based%20learning.pdf},
	abstract = {This chapter will present a direct, evidence-based argument that while media provide economic benefits for training organizations, they have not and will not influence learning, motivation or work performance. We begin with a discussion of popular instructional design models based on discovery and problem-based learning and argue that a half-century of research has indicated that they are also ineffective for all but a small minority of learners. We will briefly describe the half-century of research that supports our conclusions and describe the consequences for business and education. Contrary to popular belief regarding the importance of media in training, we will suggest that a handful of specific training methods are the only environmental factors that have been found to have a major influence on learning and performance. We will argue that the methods we describe are successful in many different delivery media because they support the mental process by which people learn complex knowledge. We will then describe an example of the current training models that promote guided learning. The chapter will conclude with a description of a powerful tool for selecting the most cost-beneficial media to deliver guided learning methods for nearly any training or performance goal.},
	booktitle = {Handbook of {Training} and {Improving} {Workplace} {Performance}},
	publisher = {International Society for Performance Improvement},
	author = {Clark, Richard E. and Yates, Kenneth A. and Early, Sean and Moulton, Kathrine},
	month = dec,
	year = {2009}
}
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