Does Virtual Reality Increase Simulator Sickness During Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder? (bibtex)
by Greg M. Reger, Derek Smolenski, Amanda Edwards-Stewart, Nancy A. Skopp, Albert "Skip" Rizzo, Aaron Norr
Abstract:
Purpose: Measurement of simulator-related side effects (SSEs) is an integral component of competent and ethical use of virtual reality exposure (VRE), but common SSEs may overlap with symptoms of anxiety. Limited research exists about the frequency of SSEs during VRE treatment for PTSD and no research compares self-reported SSEs for those undergoing VRE to those participating in exposure therapy without virtual reality. This study compared the SSEs of active duty soldiers with PTSD randomly assigned to exposure therapy via traditional prolonged exposure or VRE. Methodology: A total of 108 soldiers participated in up to 10-sessions of exposure therapy. Of those, 93 provided data on simulator sickness both prior to and after initiation of imaginal exposure. Approximately half (n = 49) used the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan system to support engagement with their trauma memory. Soldiers completed a four-item, self-reported measure of SSE after each session. Results: Controlling for age, sex, baseline anxiety symptoms, and SSE symptom counts at the first two sessions of therapy (before initiating imaginal exposure), there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in SSEs at the beginning of imaginal exposure or over the course of treatment. This finding suggests that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of SSE measurements during the use of VRE for PTSD. VR did not account for any increase in self-reported SSE. It is possible that anxiety accounts for a meaningful proportion of SSE reports during VRE.
Reference:
Does Virtual Reality Increase Simulator Sickness During Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder? (Greg M. Reger, Derek Smolenski, Amanda Edwards-Stewart, Nancy A. Skopp, Albert "Skip" Rizzo, Aaron Norr), In Telemedicine and eHealth, 2018.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{reger_does_2018,
	title = {Does {Virtual} {Reality} {Increase} {Simulator} {Sickness} {During} {Exposure} {Therapy} for {Post}-{Traumatic} {Stress} {Disorder}?},
	url = {https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/tmj.2018.0175},
	abstract = {Purpose: Measurement of simulator-related side effects (SSEs) is an integral component of competent and ethical use of virtual reality exposure (VRE), but common SSEs may overlap with symptoms of anxiety. Limited research exists about the frequency of SSEs during VRE treatment for PTSD and no research compares self-reported SSEs for those undergoing VRE to those participating in exposure therapy without virtual reality. This study compared the SSEs of active duty soldiers with PTSD randomly assigned to exposure therapy via traditional prolonged exposure or VRE.
Methodology: A total of 108 soldiers participated in up to 10-sessions of exposure therapy. Of those, 93 provided data on simulator sickness both prior to and after initiation of imaginal exposure. Approximately half (n = 49) used the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan system to support engagement with their trauma memory. Soldiers completed a four-item, self-reported measure of SSE after each session.
Results: Controlling for age, sex, baseline anxiety symptoms, and SSE symptom counts at the first two sessions of therapy (before initiating imaginal exposure), there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in SSEs at the beginning of imaginal exposure or over the course of treatment. This finding suggests that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of SSE measurements during the use of VRE for PTSD. VR did not account for any increase in self-reported SSE. It is possible that anxiety accounts for a meaningful proportion of SSE reports during VRE.},
	journal = {Telemedicine and eHealth},
	author = {Reger, Greg M. and Smolenski, Derek and Edwards-Stewart, Amanda and Skopp, Nancy A. and Rizzo, Albert "Skip" and Norr, Aaron},
	month = oct,
	year = {2018},
	keywords = {MedVR}
}
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