What's on Your Virtual Mind?: Mind Perception in Human-Agent Negotiations (bibtex)
by Minha Lee, Gale Lucas, Johnathan Mell, Emmanuel Johnson, Jonathan Gratch
Abstract:
Recent research shows that how we respond to other social actors depends on what sort of mind we ascribe to them. In this article we examine how perceptions of a virtual agent’s mind shape behavior in human-agent negotiations. We varied descriptions and communicative behavior of virtual agents on two dimensions according to the mind perception theory: agency (cognitive aptitude) and patiency (affective aptitude). Participants then engaged in negotiations with the different agents. People scored more points and engaged in shorter negotiations with agents described to be cognitively intelligent, and got lower points and had longer negotiations with agents that were described to be cognitively unintelligent. Accordingly, agents described as having low-agency ended up earning more points than those with high-agency. Within the negotiations themselves, participants sent more happy and surprise emojis and emotionally valenced messages to agents described to be emotional. This high degree of described patiency also affected perceptions of the agent’s moral standing and relatability. In short, manipulating the perceived mind of agents affects how people negotiate with them. We discuss these results, which show that agents are perceived not only as social actors, but as intentional actors through negotiations.
Reference:
What's on Your Virtual Mind?: Mind Perception in Human-Agent Negotiations (Minha Lee, Gale Lucas, Johnathan Mell, Emmanuel Johnson, Jonathan Gratch), In Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents - IVA '19, ACM Press, 2019.
Bibtex Entry:
@inproceedings{lee_whats_2019,
	address = {Paris, France},
	title = {What's on {Your} {Virtual} {Mind}?: {Mind} {Perception} in {Human}-{Agent} {Negotiations}},
	isbn = {978-1-4503-6672-4},
	url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3308532.3329465},
	doi = {10.1145/3308532.3329465},
	abstract = {Recent research shows that how we respond to other social actors depends on what sort of mind we ascribe to them. In this article we examine how perceptions of a virtual agent’s mind shape behavior in human-agent negotiations. We varied descriptions and communicative behavior of virtual agents on two dimensions according to the mind perception theory: agency (cognitive aptitude) and patiency (affective aptitude). Participants then engaged in negotiations with the different agents. People scored more points and engaged in shorter negotiations with agents described to be cognitively intelligent, and got lower points and had longer negotiations with agents that were described to be cognitively unintelligent. Accordingly, agents described as having low-agency ended up earning more points than those with high-agency. Within the negotiations themselves, participants sent more happy and surprise emojis and emotionally valenced messages to agents described to be emotional. This high degree of described patiency also affected perceptions of the agent’s moral standing and relatability. In short, manipulating the perceived mind of agents affects how people negotiate with them. We discuss these results, which show that agents are perceived not only as social actors, but as intentional actors through negotiations.},
	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th {ACM} {International} {Conference} on {Intelligent} {Virtual} {Agents}  - {IVA} '19},
	publisher = {ACM Press},
	author = {Lee, Minha and Lucas, Gale and Mell, Johnathan and Johnson, Emmanuel and Gratch, Jonathan},
	month = jul,
	year = {2019},
	keywords = {Virtual Humans, UARC},
	pages = {38--45}
}
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