The impact of agent facial mimicry on social behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma (bibtex)
by Rens Hoegen, Job Van Der Schalk, Gale Lucas, Jonathan Gratch
Abstract:
A long tradition of research suggests a relationship between emotional mimicry and pro-social behavior, but the nature of this relationship is unclear. Does mimicry cause rapport and cooperation, or merely reflect it? Virtual humans can provide unique insights into these social processes by allowing unprecedented levels of experimental control. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we examined the impact of facial mimicry and counter-mimicry in the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Participants played with an agent that copied their smiles and frowns or one that showed the opposite pattern – i.e., that frowned when they smiled. As people tend to smile more than frown, we independently manipulated the contingency of expressions to ensure any effects are due to mimicry alone, and not the overall positivity/negativity of the agent: i.e., participants saw either a reflection of their own expressions or saw the expressions shown to a previous participant. Results show that participants smiled significantly more when playing an agent that mimicked them. Results also show a complex association between smiling, feelings of rapport, and cooperation. We discuss the implications of these findings on virtual human systems and theories of cooperation.
Reference:
The impact of agent facial mimicry on social behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma (Rens Hoegen, Job Van Der Schalk, Gale Lucas, Jonathan Gratch), In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, ACM, 2018.
Bibtex Entry:
@inproceedings{hoegen_impact_2018,
	address = {Sydney, Australia},
	title = {The impact of agent facial mimicry on social behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma},
	isbn = {978-1-4503-6013-5},
	url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3267911},
	doi = {10.1145/3267851.3267911},
	abstract = {A long tradition of research suggests a relationship between emotional mimicry and pro-social behavior, but the nature of this relationship is unclear. Does mimicry cause rapport and cooperation, or merely reflect it? Virtual humans can provide unique insights into these social processes by allowing unprecedented levels of experimental control. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we examined the impact of facial mimicry and counter-mimicry in the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Participants played with an agent that copied their smiles and frowns or one that showed the opposite pattern – i.e., that frowned when they smiled. As people tend to smile more than frown, we independently manipulated the contingency of expressions to ensure any effects are due to mimicry alone, and not the overall positivity/negativity of the agent: i.e., participants saw either a reflection of their own expressions or saw the expressions shown to a previous participant. Results show that participants smiled significantly more when playing an agent that mimicked them. Results also show a complex association between smiling, feelings of rapport, and cooperation. We discuss the implications of these findings on virtual human systems and theories of cooperation.},
	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th {International} {Conference} on {Intelligent} {Virtual} {Agents}},
	publisher = {ACM},
	author = {Hoegen, Rens and Van Der Schalk, Job and Lucas, Gale and Gratch, Jonathan},
	month = nov,
	year = {2018},
	keywords = {Virtual Humans, UARC},
	pages = {275--280}
}
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